The application of Web 2.0 has allowed for market disruption, with collaborative understanding challenging once dominant products, such as user mapping removing the requirement for atlas publishers). This is known as collective intelligence (CI), the collaborative knowledge that stems from communal effort. According to Bonabeau, E. this CI allows for companies to increase the value of decision making and consumer relationships. This can be achieved through outreach expanding beyond the hierarchal barriers throughout an organisation, with the value in user numbers generating solutions and content throughout the digital sphere.
Open-source software development allows for user-led content creation, with collaborative effort providing the process to quality development. Moreover the collaborative filtering of Citizen Journalism allows the tailoring of information to certain communities; analysing sources and recycling them appropriately. On a commercial level collaborative filtering allows for the individualisation of services with Amazon’s endorsed products being the sum of its user’s internet patterns.