Zittrain states that tech consumers are willingly sacrificing freedom over security through purchase of closed-source software such as Apple. While alarming at first, considering the underlying political framework of the US of freedom, there is sufficient argument for proprietary software. According to Spenner, P. Freeman, K. consumer loyalty is built on simplicity, thus the ability for an individual navigate and trust the brand is fundamental. Connecting a Samsung phone to a Mac results in a series of negative touch points (increased expenditure of downloading transfer apps, the requirement of pressing ‘accept’ a multitude of times), rather than the simplicity of linking iOS products (thus closed-source can be positive for developing the stickiness of non-developer consumers).
This is simplicity construct is linked to the intellectual property paradigm in that open source philosophy argues that information should be co-developed, distributed and consumed by all. However if software is a particularly specialised activity, and an idea, than it can be established as an expression of the intellect.